Extra-terrestrial life.

Brian Cox believes that we haven’t contacted E.T. yet because their technological development was so rapid and powerful that there wasn’t enough time for their society to deal with it and it destroyed them. He reckons we may be going the same way.
This may very well apply to human beings on the planet Earth but it is “putting the cart before the horse” when talking about extra-terrestrials. It is often stated in the scientific press or on TV that “because of the age and size of the universe there is BOUND to be a civilisation much more advanced than our own.” This assumes that there ARE other life forms out there. This is flawed logic; you can’t come to a statistical conclusion from a sample of one! It’s like saying there is one Mona Lisa so there must be millions! It is just as likely that we are the only life forms to have ever existed in the universe. Interestingly enough Enrico Fermi, a renowned physicist, was one of the first people to consider this “problem”. I thought these people were intelligent and logical! Maybe they weren’t people at all – but aliens!




“In 2008 British archaeologists Tim Darvill and Geoffrey Wainwright suggested—on the basis of the Amesbury Archer, an Early Bronze Age skeleton with a knee injury, excavated 3 miles (5 km) from Stonehenge—that Stonehenge was used in prehistory as a place of healing. However, analysis of human remains from around and within the monument shows no difference from other parts of Britain in terms of the population’s health.”

“Stonehenge.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.


“The human occupation of Ireland did not begin until a late stage in the prehistory of Europe. It generally was held that the first arrivals to Ireland were Mesolithic hunter-fisher people, represented largely by flintwork found mainly in ancient beaches in the historic counties of Antrim, Down, Louth, and Dublin. These artifacts were named Larnian, after Larne, Northern Ireland, the site where they were first found; dates from 6000 BC onward were assigned to them. Archaeological work since World War II, however, casts considerable doubt on the antiquity and affinities of the people who were responsible for the Larnian industry; association with Neolithic remains suggests that they should be considered not as a Mesolithic people but rather as groups contemporary with the Neolithic farmers. The Larnian could then be interpreted as a specialized aspect of contemporary Neolithic culture. Lake and riverside finds, especially along the River Bann, show a comparable tradition. A single carbon-14 date of 5725 ± 110 BC from Toome Bay, north of Lough Neagh, for woodworking and flint has been cited in support of a Mesolithic phase in Ireland, but such a single date cannot be considered reliable.”

“Ireland.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.


Although sunspots were known as early as 1600, no one noticed that their number changed with time until the German amateur astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe announced the 11-year cycle in 1843. The 22-year magnetic cycle was discovered in 1925 by the American astronomer George Ellery Hale. Since that time, unsuccessful attempts have been made to connect the solar cycle to a variety of other phenomena, including possible slight variations in the diameter of the Sun, sequences of annual growth rings in trees, and even the rise and fall of stock markets.

In 1894 the English astronomer E.W. Maunder pointed out that very few sunspots were observed between 1645 and 1715, a period now known as the Maunder minimum. This period coincided with the coldest part of the “Little Ice Age” (c. 1500–1850) in the Northern Hemisphere, when the River Thames in England froze over during winter, Viking settlers abandoned Greenland, and Norwegian farmers demanded that the Danish king recompense them for lands occupied by advancing glaciers. The event was confirmed by the American astronomer J.A. Eddy, using carbon isotope ratios in tree rings. During this time the 11-year cycle continued but with a much-reduced amplitude. The data suggest that other such events occurred in the previous millennium. The physical mechanism that explains how sunspots affect Earth’s climate is unknown, and a single episode, however suggestive, does not prove that lower sunspot numbers produce cooling.

“solar cycle.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.



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